Detecting & Diagnosing

Detection & Diagnostic Technologies

SIH Cancer Institute offers the most advanced options for quick and accurate diagnosis. Imaging options include 64-slice CT scanning, x-rays, ultrasound, MRI, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and digital mammography (in 2009, The Breast Center was designated as a Breast Imaging Center of Excellence by the American College of Radiology). For biopsies, minimally invasive options include image-guided stereotactic, endoscopic and core needle biopsies for diagnosing any type of cancer.

Cancer Symptoms by Disease

Below are some of the most common cancers. If you experience symptoms for more than two weeks, check with your doctor. Remember, detecting cancer early can greatly increase your chances of a successful treatment.

Breast cancer symptoms
  • New lump in the breast or armpit
  • Enlarged lymph nodes
  • Changes in breast size, shape or skin texture
  • Skin redness
  • Dimpling or puckering
  • Nipple changes or discharge
  • Scaliness
  • Nipple pulling to one side or a change in direction
  • Many breast changes, including lumps, are not cancer, but if you notice one for more than two weeks, see your doctor.
Colon cancer symptoms
  • Rectal bleeding
  • Blood in the stool or toilet after a bowel movement
  • Prolonged diarrhea or constipation
  • A change in the size or shape of your stool
  • Abdominal pain or a cramping pain in your lower stomach
  • A feeling of discomfort or urge to have a bowel movement when there is no need
Endometrial cancer symptoms (lining of the uterus)
  • Bleeding after menopause (in more than 90% of patients)
  • Irregular vaginal bleeding before menopause
  • Change in bowel or bladder habits
Cervical cancer symptoms
  • Bleeding after intercourse
  • Abnormal bleeding between periods
  • Excessive vaginal discharge
Prostate cancer symptoms
  • Frequent urination
  • Hard time when starting to urinate, or trying to hold back
  • Not being able to urinate
  • Weak or interrupted urine flow
  • Painful or burning urination
  • Blood in the urine
  • Difficulty having an erection
  • Blood in the semen
  • Frequent pain or stiffness in the lower back, hips or upper thighs
  • Many prostate symptoms are not cancer, but if you notice one or more of these symptoms for more than two weeks, see your doctor.
Testicular cancer symptoms
  • Small, hard lump that is often painless
  • Change in consistency in the testicles
  • Feeling of heaviness in the scrotum
  • Dull ache in the lower abdomen or the groin
  • Sudden collection of fluid in the scrotum
  • Pain or discomfort in a testicle or in the scrotum
  • Beginning at age 18, men should examine their testicles monthly. Testicular cancer is the most common cancer in young men between the ages of 18 and 35.
Oral cancer symptoms
  • White or velvety red patches in the mouth
  • Lumps or hardening of tissue in the mouth
  • If you smoke, chew or dip tobacco, or drink alcohol, you should examine your mouth regularly.
Skin cancer symptoms
  • New spot
  • Spot that changes in size, shape or color
  • Sore that doesn’t heal
  • Spot or sore that changes in sensation, itchiness, tenderness or pain
  • Small, smooth, shiny, pale or waxy lump
  • Firm red lump that may bleed or develops a crust
  • Flat, red spot that is rough, dry or scaly
Lung cancer symptoms
  • Cough that will not go away and gets worse over time
  • Constant chest pain, or arm and shoulder pain
  • Coughing up blood
  • Shortness of breath, wheezing or hoarseness
  • Repeated episodes of pneumonia or bronchitis
  • Swelling of the neck and face
  • Loss of appetite and/or weight loss
  • Fatigue
  • Clubbing of fingers